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Coordination and Response in Flowering plants Understand that plants respond to stimuli Describe the geotropic responses of roots and stems Describe positive phototropism of stem Reproduction in Flowering Plants Describe the structures of an insect-pollinated and a wind-pollinated flower and explain how each is adapted for pollination The growth of the pollen tube followed by fertilisation leads to seed and fruit formation How germinating seeds utilise food reserves until the seedling can carry out photosynthesis Plants can reproduce asexually by by natural methods (illustrated by runners) and by artificial methods (illustrated by cuttings) The Organism in the Environment Population, community, habitat and ecosystem Use of quadrats to estimate the population size of an organism in two different areas Describe the use of quadrats as a technique for sampling the distribution of organisms in their habitats.Feeding Relationships Names given to different trophic levels to include producers, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers and decomposers The concepts of food chains, food webs, pyramids of number, pyramids of biomass and pyramids of energy transfer The transfer of substances and of energy along a food chain Why only about 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next Cycles within Ecosystems The stages in the water cycle, including evaporation, transpiration, condensation and precipitation The stages in the carbon cycle, including respiration, photosynthesis, decomposition and combustion The stages in the nitrogen cycle, including the roles of nitrogen fixing bacteria, decomposers, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria (specific names of bacteria are not required) Human influences on the environment Tthe biological consequences of pollution of air by sulfur dioxide and by carbon monoxide Water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and CFCs are greenhouse gases How human activities contribute to greenhouse gases How an increase in greenhouse gases results in an enhanced greenhouse effect and that this may lead to global warming and its consequences The biological consequences of pollution of water by sewage including increases in the number of microorganisms causing depletion of oxygen Eutrophication can result from leached minerals from fertiliser The effects of deforestation, including leaching, soil erosion, disturbance of the water cycle and of the balance in atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide Use of Biological Resources Food Production How glasshouses and polythene tunnels can be used to increase the yield of certain crops The effects on crop yield of increased carbon dioxide and increased temperature in glasshouses The use of fertiliser to increase crop yield Beer Production The role of bacteria (Lactobacillus) in the production of yoghurt Industrial fermenter Fish Farming Selective Breeding Genetic Modification Micropropagation Commercial plant growing Mammal Cloning Cloned transgenic animals You can use the free Mathway calculator and problem solver below to practice Algebra or other math topics.Little did I know my worries would extend far beyond that concern.Less than a week later, I found myself in excruciating pain. Our week-by-week guide will help you through your nine months of pregnancy so you can be a smarter, more confident, more prepared mom-to-be.It’s difficult to know exactly when conception occurred, so doctors calculate your due date from the beginning of your last menstrual cycle.A lot of the experts feel that one way to ensure that you get fantastic, glowing skin is to stick to a nutritious and healthy diet.This means lots of fruits and veggies for their exceptional nutrient content.

Mom-to-be: At the beginning of your period, about 20 eggs called ova occupy fluid-filled sacs called follicles.

Cell Structure Levels of Organisation Cell structures, including the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplast and vacuole Describe the functions of the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplast and vacuole Describe the differences between plant and animal cells.

Biological Molecules The chemical elements present in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (fats and oils) Describe the structure of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids as large molecules made up from smaller basic units: starch and glycogen from simple sugar; protein from amino acids; lipid from fatty acids and glycerol Describe the tests for glucose and starch The role of enzymes as biological catalysts in metabolic reactions How the functioning of enzymes can be affected by changes in temperature How the functioning of enzymes can be affected by changes in p H Movement of substances into and out of cell Definitions of diffusion, osmosis and active transport The movement of substances into and out of cells can be by diffusion, osmosis and active transport The importance in plants of turgid cells as a means of support The factors that affect the rate of movement of substances into and out of cells to include the effects of surface area to volume ratio, temperature and concentration gradient Nutrition in Flowering Plants Photosynthesis and understand its importance in the conversion of light energy to chemical energy The word equation and the balanced chemical symbol equation for photosynthesis Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis How the structure of the leaf is adapted for photosynthesis Plants require mineral ions for growth, magnesium ions for chlorophyll and nitrate ions for amino acids Nutrition in Humans A balanced diet should include appropriate proportions of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, vitamins, minerals, water and dietary fibre Sources and functions of carbohydrate, protein, lipid (fats and oils), vitamins A, C and D, and the mineral ions calcium and iron, water and dietary fibre as components of the diet Respiration The process of respiration releases energy in living organisms Describe the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration The word equation and the balanced chemical symbol equation for aerobic respiration in living organisms The word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants and in animals Human Respiration Thorax structure Ventilation Alveoli adaptations Biological effects of smoking Transport Diffusion in unicellular organisms Transport systems in multicellular organisms Blood Composition of Blood Role of Plasma Red Blood Cells Phagocytosis Lymphocytes Vaccination Clotting The Heart Describe the structure of the heart and how it functions The heart rate changes during exercise and under the influence of adrenaline Describe the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries and understand their roles The general plan of the circulation system to include the blood vessels to and from the heart, the lungs, the liver and the kidneys.

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If you are newly pregnant or trying to conceive, you have many questions about what to expect. Each week offers information about your body and the baby's as well as helpful advice you can use throughout your pregnancy. Baby: Your baby is still just a glimmer in your eye.

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